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Munger Through Prism of History

The territory included within the district of Munger (famously Monghyr) formed pent of the Madhya-desa as “Midland” of the first Aryan settlers. It has been identified with Mod-Giri a place mentioned in the Mahabharata, which was the capital of a kingdom in Eastern India near Vanga and Tamralipta. In the Digvijaya Parva of Mahabharata, we find the mention of Moda-Giri, Which seems similar to Moda-Giri. Digvijaya Parva suggests that it was a monarchical state during early times. A passage in the Sabha-Parva describes Bhima’s conquest in Eastern India and says that after defeating Karna, king of Anga, he fought battle at Modagiri and killed its chief. It was also known as Maudal after Maudgalya, a disciple of Buddha, who converted a rich merchant of this place into Buddhism. Buchanan says that it was the hermitage of Mudgala Muni and this tradition of Mudgal Risi still persists. Munger is called “Modagiri” in the Monghyr copperplate of Devapala. The derivation of the name Munger (Monghyr) has found the subject of much speculation. Tradition arcribes the foundation of the town to Chandragupta, after whom it was called Guptagars a name which has been found inscribed on a rock at Kastaharni Ghat at the north-western corner of the present fort. It is insisted that Mudgalrisi lived there. Tradition ascribes the composition of various suktar  of the 10th Mavdala of the Rigveda to Rishi Mudgal and his clan. However, General Cunnigham had strong suspicicion when he connects this original name with Mons as Mundas, who occupied this part before the advent of the Aryans. Again Mr. C.E.A. oldham, ICS, a farmer collector suggests the possibility of Munigiha,  ie , the abode of the Muni, without any specification which later corrupted to Mungir and later became Munger.

 At the dawn of history, the present site of the town was apparently comprised within the Kingdom of Anga, with the capital Champa near Bhagalpur. According to Pargiter, Anga comprises the modern districts of Bhagalpur and Munger commissionary. The Anga dominion at one time included Magadha and the Shanti-Parva refers to an Anga king who sacrificed at Mount Vishnupada. In the epic period Modagiri finds mention as a separate state. The success of the Anga did not last long and about the middle of the sixth century B.C. Bimlisara of Magadha is said to have killed Brahmadatta, the last independent ruler of ancient Anga. Hence the Anga became an integral part of the growing empire of Magadh. As epigraphic evidence of the Gupta period suggests that Munger was under the Guptas. To the reign of Buddhagupta (447-495 A.D) belongs a copper plate of A.D. 488-9 originally found at Mandapura in the district. 

HIUEN TSIANG’S ACCOUNT: However the first historical account of the district appears in the Travels of HIUEN TSIANG, who visited this area towards the close of the first half of the seventh century A.D. Hiuen Tsiang observed “The country is regularly cultivated and rich in produce flowers and fruit being abundant, the climate is agreeable and manners of the people simple and honest. There are 10 Buddhist monartries with about 4,000 priests and few Brahminical temples occupied by various sectaries”. The pilgrim’s “I-lan-ha-po-fa-to”country is identified as this area. He had to pass through thick forest and strange mountains into the country of Hiranayaparvat. The capital Hiranayaparvat, lay, on the southern bank of Ganga, and closed to it stood mount Hiranya, which “belched masses of smoke and vapour that obscured the light of the sun and the moon”. The position of this hill is determined from its proximity to the Ganga, to be Munger and though no smoke now comes from any peak, the numerous hot springs in the hills point to famous volcanic action. These hot spring are also mentioned in Hiuen Tsiang’s Account. General Cunningham identified the hot springs being those of Bhimbandh and its offshoots. Other authorities refer it as Uren in present Lakhisarai District.

                Unfortunately, there is a historical gap of almost two centuries when we find its fresh mention in the Munger copper plate of Devapala discovered at Munger about 1780. We learn from this copper plate about Dharampala (c.770-810) who preceded far beyond Kanauj in his military campaigns. It refers to a campaign of Dharampala along the foot of the Himalayas. Tripartite struggle between the Palas, Rashhtrakutas and Gurjar-Pratihars for subermacy over Kanauj was a dominant factor in the history of northern India. We find mention of Pala king Gopal, his son Dharampala & Devapala. Munger prominence is also corroborated by the Nawlagarth inscriptions of Begusarai. The Bhagalpur plate of Narayan pala, executed at Munger, shows their policy of religious tolerance and there patronage to the worshipers of Shiva & Sakti cults.

                Till the advent of the Turkish rule in ule in India. Munger was under sway of the Karnataka dynasty of Mithila. However Bakhiyar Khilji took possession of Territory any of Munger in AD1225. Thus Munger in possession of the Khilji ruler Gyasuddin. After a tussle  and aftermath a peace treaty Munger came under the control of Sultan of Bengal between 1301-1322, which is corroborated by the Lakhisarai Inscription. Munger came under the possession of Muhammad Bin Tugular who annexed  Munger to Delhi for some time. In 1342 the whole of north India witnessed the turmoil and Late Spasmodic Illyas Shah of Bangal taking advantage of the opportunities established his sway over Bihar. An interesting description of the Bengal sultan still exists in Lakhisarai. Inscription bearing a date corresponding to 1297 which mentions Rakmuddin Kalawao (c1296-1302) and a Governor round Ferai Hitagim. During thus conflict between the Tugulaqs of Delhi and Bangal Sultan some portions of then Munger came under the possession of the Sharqils of Jaunpur.

                 Some inscriptions found in Munger speaks of the conflict between the Jampur rules and the Bangal Sultan which resulted in farmer’s defeat and finally resulted in peace. Here we came across the name of prince Danyal who held the post of Governor of Bihar. It was prince Danyal who had repaired the fortification of Munger and built in 1497 the voult over the shrine of Shah Nafah. This is also known by the insemination but up by Danyal on the eastern wall of the Dargah just within the southern gate of the fort.

                Nasrat Shah succeeded Hussain Shah in Bengal in 1590. His brother-in-law Makhdun Alam took possession of Munger Fort and entrusted its responsibility to one of his  general named Kutub Khan who made Munger the head quarters of Bihar army of the rulers of Gaur. Bahar in his memoir mention that when he invaded  Bihar, Munger was under the change of a prince. After the Battle of ghagra, Babar sent envoys to Nusarat Shah later Kutub Khan was defeated and killed by Shur Shah. In 1534 again a powerful army in command of Ibrahim Khan moved out to Munger, The battles took place in the narrow plains of Surajgarha in which Ibrahim Khan was routed and slain and Sher Shah firmly placed himself to Kingshlip. Thus during the Humayun-Sher Shah conflict Munger pardoner strategic gamed. During the subsequent war between Sher Shah and Humayun Munger was the seat of battle between, the Afghan and the Empires in which Sher Shah captured Dilawar Khan son of Daulat Khan Lodi. Mughal rule was substituted for Afghan rule. During Akbar’s period when the great Bengal military revolts started. Munger was for some time the headquarters of Akbar’s officers in their expeditions against the rebels. It was in this year that Raja Todarmal took possession of Munger and tried to deal with three refractory powerful semi-independent Zamindars of Akbar’s time viz. Raja Gajapati of Hajipur, Raja Puran Mal of Ghidhaur and Raja Sangram Singh of Kharagpur. The last two belonged to the district of Munger. Gajapati was totally ruined. After the final occupation of Bihar, Raja Man Singh was appointed as the Governor and on the basis of Akbarnama. It can be said that Raja Man Singh succeeded well in his administration. Kharagpur at that time was a great principality extending from the south of Munger to the south of Bhagalpur and Santhal Paragans. Sangram Singh remained loyal to the Mughal rule till Akbar’s death in 1605. But the accession of Jahangir and the rebellion of Prince Khusru led him to make a final attempt to recover his independence. He collected his forces, which, according to Jhangir’s memoirs, consisted of about four thousand horses and a large army of foot soldiers.

The Mughal army under Jahangir’s Kuli Khan Lala Beg, Governor of Bihar, valiantly opposed him and a gun shot in 1606 killed Sangram Singh. Sangram Singh’s son succeeded in gaining favour of Jahangir but had to wait till 1615 when, on his conversion to Islam, he was allowed to return to Bihar. He known in history as Rozafzun (ie. Daily growing in power). He remained faithful to the Emperor and in 1628 when Jahangir died he was a commander of 1500-foot soldiers and 700 horses. When Shahjahan became the Emperor, Rozafzun entered into active Mughal services and accompanied Mahabat Khan in his Kabul expedition. He was a brave soldier and had to his credit his participation in the Siege of Parendah and was promoted to the higher ranks and became the commander of 2000-foot soldiers and 1000 horses.He died in 1635 and was succeeded by his son Raja Bihruz who was also a great fighter and held the rank of 700-foot soldier and 700 horses, under Shahjahan. He extended his territory, got many grants specially the Chakla Midnapur, in which he built a town and named it Kharagpur. A ruined palace built by him is there; adjoining it is a three-domed mosque. There is still a marble slab, which gives the date of building in 1656 A.D. But this brave Kharagpur ruler died in 1656. During the civil (1657-58) amongst the sons of Shahjahan, Shah Shuja, the second son of the Emperor was governor of Bengal. On hearing of the serious illness of his father in 1657 he raised the standard of revolts and claimed the throne. Though his capital was at Rajmahal, Munger the centre from which he direct his preparations and here he returned in 1658 after his defeat. In June 1658, Auranzeb made an attempt to conciliate Shuja by granting him the province of Bihar in addition to Bengal. Munger came into great prominence during this period of the civil war. Prof. Quanungo writes that after the March of Imperial Army Shuja wrote to Dara asking for the grant of Munger, which formed the part of Dara’s province of Bihar. Dara was also prepared to give away the Fort of Munger on the condition that the present fortress was dismantled and Shuja’s son did not reside there. We also get a reference of Murad’s letter in which the designs of Dara to deprive Shuja of Munger has been hinted at. Shuja took shelter at Munger to face the Imperialists. In course of this conflict Dara was compelled to send urgent letters to his son to make peace with his uncle. As a result of this treaty of 1685 Munger was added to Shuja’s viceroyalty but he was not allowed to reside there. In 1659 Daud Khan took charge of the province of Bihar. Mir. Jumla and Prince Muhammad pursued Shuja up to Munger. Shuja was forced by the treachery of Raja Bihruz Khan of Kharagpur and Khaza Kamal of Birbhum to abandon Munger in 1659. It was in this connection that Raja Bihruz was made In charge of the whole area of Munger. We also find a mention of a Aevastative famine during the reign of the Governor, Ibrahim Khan which continued from 1670-72. The Dutch traveller, De Graafe, who travelled from Munger to Patna in November 1670 gives a graphic picture of the horrible sccnes. Marshall also mentions very interesting details about Munger. He inspected Shah Suja place built on the west side of the Fort. He describes it, “as a very large house where the king (Suja) lived, walled next to the river, for about one and half Kos with bricks and stones, with a wall fifteen yards high”. He entered the first gate but was stopped at the other within which he saw two elephants carved in stone and very large and handsomely”. The inside palace was so strictly guarded that two Dutch men De Graafe and Oasterhoff were imprisoned for their antiquarian interest as they were taken as spies. They were released after seven weeks of imprisonment in November , 1670 by paying a fine of one thousand rupees to the Nawab of Patna. Marshall found a great garden and, at the south end, he saw several thatched and many tombs and mosques.

He further writes “the town stands upon an ascent, the river bank by it being 8 or 10 yards high, the brick wall by the river side at the south end of Munger was about 5 yards high and 20 yards long with a little tower at each end and each wall is a fortification to place the gun on it. Towards the close of  the 18th Century we find that Munger was merely station of “Power Magazine” established there….” For most vivid lightning often about Munger attracted by the iron ore which abounds in the neighboring hills and if it fell upon the magazine, the while Fort could certainly be destroyed by the explosion”. We find mention in the travel account of R.Heber in his book “Narrative of Journey Through the Upper Province of India (1827)” that Munger was noted for its good climate and Warren Hastings also speaks of the delightful change of atmosphere from that of Bengal. Heber further wrote “Munger presents an imposing appeardance…. The Fort is now dismantled. Its gates, its battlements etc. are all of Asiatic architecture and very much similar to the Khitairagorod of Moscow.” Miss Emily Eden was also much struck by the inland tables and boxes and expressed surprise on such curious workmanship (Miss Eden-Up the Country quoted in Munger Gazetteer 1960). The remark of Miss Eden is also attested in the writing of Fanny Parkes who wrote “Among the articles manufactured here the black vases for flowers turned into while wood and lacquered whilst in the Lathe with scaling wax are pretty”. Joseph Hooker also speaks highly of Munger, “By far the prettiest town, Munger was celebrated for its iton manufacture, especially of muskets, in which respect it is the Burmingham of Bengal”.

When we come down to the early Mughal period we get a few references to the district in the famous book “Ain-I-Akbari” prepared by Abul Fazl. According to it Sarkar Munger consisted of 31 mahals or Parganas, paying a revenue of 10,96,25 981 dams (40 dams equal to One Akbar Shahi rupee). It is also mentioned that Sarkar Munger furnished 2150 horses and 50,000 foot soldiers. Raja Man Singh who is said to have reconqucred Bengal and Orissa had for some time Munger as his residenoc.During the reign of Aurangzed we find mention of Munger inconnection with the death and burial at Munger of the poet Mulla Mohammad Saiyed, who wrote under the nom-de-plume of Ashraf. The poet Ashraf stood in high favour with prince Azim-Us-Shah, Aurangzeb’s  grand son, who happened to be the Governor of Bihar. The poet Ashraf had also been for a long time the teacher of Zebunissa Begum, Aurangzeb’s daughter who was herself a poetcss of rupute. It 1704 while on his way from Bengal to Mecca, the poet died at Munger where his tomb is still pointed out. Nicholas Graafe, a Dutch physician who visited in the beginning of the century was struck with admiration at the sight of its white wall, towers and minarets. But by 1745 when Mustafa Khan, a rebellious General of Alivardi Khan advanced against it in his march northwards the fort was a ruinous fortification which the Governor and his little garrison tried to put up some Defence but failed miserably.

The besieger got upon the wall and scized the fort though the leader was killed by a stone that fell upon him. Mustafa Khan, however, following the custom of those days, had music played to celebrate his success, he also took some guns and ammunition from the fort and after a halt for a few days marched off towards Patna. During the period of the disintegration of Mughal Empire Munger had to witness new changes. Bihar came to be joined to the Suba of Bengal, which had practically become independent of Delhi. Alivardi, who was the Fauzdar of Rajmahal had now become the District Governor of Munger. Munger was politically and strategically so important that it did not escape even the Maratha expendition. The second Maratha invasion under Raghujee Bhonsla occurred in 1743.

 Balaji Maratha entered into Bihar and advancing through Tekari, Gaya, Manpur, Bihar and Munger. It is also mentioned that during the 4th Maratha  invasion in 1744 Raghuji passed through the hills of Kharagpur. When  British force was pursuing Jean Law, the French adventurer and partisan of siraj-ud-duala, who was flying northwards after the Battle of Plassey, Major Coote reached Munger late at night on 20th July, 1757 and requisitioned a number of boats which the Governor of Munger supplied. But Munger Fort was in such a good condition that he was not allowed to enter the Fort and when he approached the walls he found that garrison was ready to fire. Coote wisely resumed his march without any attempt to enter the Fort. Nearly three years after in the spring of 1760  the army of Emperor Shah Alam marched out of the District when he was being pursued by Major Caillaud and miran. The Emperor had been defeated by Caillaud and Miran at sirpur on the 22nd February, 1760. This time Johan Stables, who had succeeded Caillaud was given charge of Munger. It was he who directed to attack the Kharagpur Raja who had openly defied the authority of the new Nawab, Kasim Ali Khan.

The modern history of Munger came again into Prominence in 1762 when Kasim Ali Khan made it his capital instead of Murshidbad in Bengal. The new Nawab removed his treasure, his elephants and horses and even the gold and silver decorations of the Imam Bara from his old capital. He favored General Gurghin (Gregory) Khan, an Armenian of Ispahan, re-organized the army and had it drilled and equipped after English model. He also established and arsenal for the manufacture of fire-arms and it is from this time that Munger can trace back its importance for the manufacture of guns.  Even today that glorious tradition is being carried on by hundreds of families who specialize in the manufacture of guns.

Two days a week he sat in a public hall of audience and personally dispensed justice. He listened Patiently to the complaints and grievances of everyone and gave his impartial order. The Nawab, indeed, was a terror both to his enemies and to wring doors. He also honored learning and the learned and welcomed scholars and savants to his court and he surely earned the respect and admiration of both friends and foes alike. Unfortunately, however, destiny did not help him and Mir Kasim Ali soon came into confrontation with the English. 

MIR KASIM AND HIS CONFICT WITH THE ENGLISH: The first quarrel appears to have been caused by the tactless conduct of Mr. Ellis, who was in incharge of an English factory at patna. Mr. Ellis had received a vague report that two English deserters were concealed at Munger. A long dispute followed and it was finally compromised by Mr. Ironsides, the Town Major of Calcutta , who conducted the search of the Fort with the due permission of the Nawab. No deserters were found inside the Fort, the only European in the place being an old French invalid. In April, 1762 Warren Hastings was sent from Calcutta to arrange the terms between the Nawab and Mr.Ellis. The Nawab received him well but Ellis refused to meet Warren Hastings and stayed in his house at Singhia, 15 miles away from Munger. Beside  this personal rancor, serious trade disputes arose between the Nawab and East India Company. The East India Company had been enjoying exemption frm heavy duty transit levied on inland trade. After the battle of Blassey the European servants of the Company began to trade extensivdy on their own account and to claim a similar exemption for all goods passing under company’s flag and covered by Dastak or certificate signed by the Governor or any agent of the factory. Great abuses followed when the English in some cases lent their names to Indians for a consideration and the latter used the same Dastak over and over again or even began forging them.      

Warren Hastings in 1762 says that every boat he met on the river bore the company’s flag and became aware of the oppression of the people by the Gumashtas and the Company’s servant. Mir Kasim bitterly complained that his source of revenue had been taken away from him and that his authority was completely disregarded. Eventually in Octuber, 1762, Mr. Vansittart, the Governor left Calcutta in order to try and conclude a settlement between  the two parties. He found the Nawab of Munger  smarting under the injuries and insults he had received. But at length it was agreed that servants of the company should be allowed to carry on the inland private trade, on payment of a fixed duty of 9% on all goods- a rate much below that paid by the other merchants. The dastak also remained with a new provision that it should also be countersigned by the nawab’s collector. Mir Kasim agreed to these terms but, of course, very unwillingly. Sair-ul-Mutakharin gives a detailed account of the visit of Vansittart. The Nawab advanced six miles to meet vansittart and arrange for his residence in the house which Gurghin Khan had crected on hill of Sitakund (Pir Pahar).

                Vansittart returned to Calcutta in January 1763 after a week long stay at Munger but he was sorry to find that the agreement concluded with the Nawab has been repudiated. The Nawab, however, had honestly sent the copies of the Governor’s agreement to all of his officrs for its immediate implementation. The result was that English  goods then in transit, were stopped and duty caimed upon them. The English council reacted sharply and wanted that the English dastak should pass free of duty. The Nawab on the other hand protested at this breach of faith and passed orders abolishing all transit duty and thereby, throwing open the whole inland trade free from any custom duty. The English regarded this as an act of hostility and preparations for war began but English decided first to send a deputation headed by Messrs. Amyatt and Hay to arrange fresh tersm with the Nawab.Mr. Ellis was also informed of this development and was warned not to commit any act lof aggression even if the mission failed and Amyatt and Hay were well out of the Nawab’s power.

                The members of the mission reached Munger on the 14th may, 1763 and opened up negotiations, but it was soon found that they were undocked. The Nawab who was offended at the rough and over bearing manner in which he was addressed by the English linguist and refused to speak to him. At subsequent interviews also the Nawab tried to avenge the English insult and refused to come to any terms. The Envoys were kept under strict supervision and when some of the party wished to ride out from Munger they found their way barred by the Nawab’s soldiers with lighted matches ready to fire. Just at this tenses moment English cargo boats for Calcutta were detained at Munger and 500 Muskets intended for the factory at Patna were found out hidden under the cargo. The Nawab, naturally, became suspicious of the English move which might have been to seize the fort and the city at Patna. He wanted , therefore, a thorough check-up by his own troops otherwise he would declare war. In the mean time he permitted Mr. Amyatt and others of the party to leave for Calcutta, but detained Mr. Hay and Mr. Gulson as hostages for the safety lof his officers who had been arrested by the English.

                As  regardes the final rupture between the English and Bengal Nawab it was precipitated by the action of Mr. Ellis who believed that war was in any  case inevitable, and seized the city of Patna on hearing the news that the detachment was advancing from Munger to reinforce the Nawab’s garrison. The Nawab also retaliated promptly, reinforcements were hurried up and the Fort quickly recaptured. This  news of the success gave Kasim Ali the keenest delight. Even though it was mid-night, he immediately ordered music to strike and awakened the whole town of Munger. At day-break the doors of the public halls were thrown open and every one hastened to offer him congratulations. He , now, proclaimed the outbreak of war and directed his officers to put the English to sword wherever they were found. In pursuance lof this general order Mr. Amayat was killed at Murshidabad and the factory at Cossim (Kasim) Bazar was stormed. The survivorsw surrendered and were sent to Munger to join their unfortunate companions from patna.

                The British force under  Major Adams quickly advanced against the nawab and defeated his troops at Suti. On Hearing of his defeat, he sent his Begums and children to the fort at Rohtas and set out himself accompanied by Gurgin khan to join his army that was now concentrated on the banks of the Udhua Nullah near Rajmahal. Before leaving Munger, however, he pur to death a number of his prisoners including Raja Ram Narayan, till lately Deputy Governor of Bihar, who was thrown down into the river below the fort with a pitcher filled with sand bound to his neck. Gurgin Khan not satisfied with this butchery also urged the Nawab to kill his English prisoners but this the Nawab refused to do. Jagat set Mahtab Rai and Sarup Chand, two rich bankers of Murshidabad who had been brought from that place by Mir Kasim Ali as they were believed to favour the British cause also appears to have escaped. Though as the tradition says they were also drowned at the same time. This story is, however, contradicted by the author of Sair-UI-Mutakharin who says that they were hacked to pieces at Barth. The exact location of the tower of castle of Munger from where Jagat Seth and others were thrown down has not yet been located.

                Before the Nawab could join his army at Udhua Nullah he heard of a second decisive defeat that he had sustained and thereafter returned to Munger. He stayed there only for two or three days and marched to Patna with his prisoners like Mr. Hay, Mr. Ellis and some others. On the way Mr. Kasim halted on the bank of Rahua Nullah, a small stream near Lakhisarai. It was here that Gurgin Khan met his death and was cut down by some of his own troopers who were demanding arrears of their pay. A scene of wild confusion followed. Makar, another Armenian General, fired off some guns, the thought that the English were upon them and fled in terror, Mir Kasim himself flying on an elephant. There was great confusion in the army because of this false alarm but Mir Kasim marched on the next day to Patna.

In the meantime the British army moved on rapidly towards Munger and at this time Munger was placed under the command of Arab Ali Khan, who was a creature of Gurgin Khan. On the first of October 1763 the main body of the army arrived on batteries that had been thrown up and were immediately opened. For two days heavy fire was maintained but in the evening the Governor capitulated and surrendered himself and his garrison. The English at once set to work to repair the breaches and improve the defences.       

                The Fort was left under the command of Captain John White who was further directed to raise locally another battalion of sepoys. This news of the capture of Munger infuriated the Nawab who as soon as he heard of it gave order that his English prisoners at Patna should be put to death. This order was carried out by the infamous Samru and is known in history, as the ‘Massacre of Patna’.

                There years later in 1766 there was a mutiny of the European officers of Bengal army because of the reduction of “bhatta” which was an extra monthly sum to cover the increased expenses when the soldiers were on active military duty. After the battle of Plassey Mir Jafar Khan had granted an extra-allowance, called “double bhatta” which had continued during the role of Mir Kasim also. But the Directors of the companies now passed order that this allowance should be abolished except for the grant of half-bhatta to the troops stationed at Patna and Munger. This curtailment was bitterly resented by the army officers and on the first of May, 1766 a memorandum to this effect was signed by officers of the first brigade stationed at Munger under Sir Robert Fletcher who transmitted it to Lord Clive at Murshidabad.

                Clive lost no time and proceeded to Munger in person by forced marches and in the mean time sent forward some officers to deal with the situation as well as they could. When arrived at Munger late at night on the 12th May, the army heard too much of drums beating and going further to Robert Fletcher’s quarter they found the European regiment drinking, singing and beating drums. Next morning two of them went to Kharagpur and returned with two battalions to Munger. But we learn that on 14th the European battalion broke out in open mutiny and Captain Smith seized the saluting batteries which were situated upon hillock. The hillock was known as Karn Choura hill. Captain Smith gained possession of the hill and was successful in suppressing the rebellion. In short, Munger was recaptured by the prompt and brave action of Caption Smith and sir Robert Fletcher.

                Clive hadd already reached Munger and he held a parade of troops. He explained the circumstances under which the “bhatta” had been withdrawn and he further applauded the loyal conduct of the sepoys and condemned the conspiracy of some officers. They were further threatened that the ring leaders would get the severest penalties under Martial Law. After his address, the brigade gave their hearty cheers and marched off quietly to the barracks and the lines. Thus, the rebellion of the British officers at Munger was successfully suppressed. For some time John Maccabe was a Deputy Commissioner, Government of Munger before 1789.

                The subsequent history of the district is uneventful with the extension of the British dominions, the town of  Munger  ceased to be an important frontier post. There was no arsenal, no regular garrison was kept up and no attempt was made to bring the fortification up-to-date. Munger, however, was still important for its fine situation and salubrious air and was used as a sanatorium for the British troops. So great a resort that it was the journey up the Ganga followed by a stay was regarded of as healthy as a sea voyage. We find that a trip to Munger was prescribed for the wife of Warren Hastings when she was in ill health and in 1781 when Warren Hastings was on his way to meet Chait Singh at Banaras he left his wife here for the benefit of her health. But during the early part of the 19th century Munger was degraded to a lunatic asylum for sepoys where there was also a depot for army clothing and it became an invalid station for British soldiers.